OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
isfying their own wants. Slavery is one of the fixed institutions of the archipelago. It exists by birth and by conquest, prisoners of war, insolvent debtors, and unfortunates seized by piratical expeditions, being held in bondage. The institution is likewise recognized by the Koran, and thus becomes one of the tenets of the Moslem religion.
The Moros are undoubtedly of Arabian extraction. They resemble the Arabs more than any othe-r race, and have retained many of the customs of that people. The differences that now exist are due to intermarriage with savage tribes and the pagan superstitions which they have engrafted on their original faith. They imagine themselves orthodox Mohammedans, but they are in fact nothing more than superstitious and bloody-minded savages. They believe that the planets are the light of God, set in the heavens to guide and illuminate the earth. They deny the assertion that there are other worlds in the universe, but they believe that there are spiritual beings who inliabit the air above and the earth beneath our feet. Like all other Mohammedans, they worship one God, whom they call a Toohan,a who is endowed with all wisdom and power, and is omnipresent. They believe that animals have spirits, the sultana and her women. |)U|- ^hat they differ from the souls of men, and vanish into
a much larger figure; but there is very little accuracy in any of these estimates.
They may number half a million or more. At any rate, they are numerous enough to cause a good deal of worry, and under no circumstances can they ever be amalgamated with our people, because their religion forbids it. They must either be driven away, exterminated, or remain as they are.
The Sultanate is an hereditary monarchy under the Salic law, which excludes women from the throne. His Highness is a Mussulman by faith, acknowledging the supreme ecclesiastical authority of the Sultan of Turkey, and being under the religious obligation of all Mussulmans, of having to make a pilgrimage to Mecca. In order that he may do so, one of his ministers, of whom there are three, is named as regent to act as ruler in the event of his absence. The other members of the Sultana s cabinet are the minister of war and the minister of justice and master of the ceremonies. The Sultan is supreme in his authority over the lives and property of his subjects, but is advised in matters of state by a council of elders. Under him, but not fully
acknowledging his authority, are a number of petty chiefs, called da-tos, who collect tribute in his name, and pay over to the royal treasury such portion of revenue as remains after sat-
A PAPAUN WARRIOR.
Showing decorated war-club, amulets, etc.
air at death. They believe in the immortality of the soul, which they contend enters into the body at birth through the crown of the head, and departs at death in the same manner, a place being left between the bones of the skull for this purpose. During life the soul animates every part of the body, as shown by the fact that all the members are equally sensitive. The conditions after death differ according to the teachings of various a panditas,a or priests; some contending that the soul goes directly to the place of God, while others argue that it sleeps under the earth until the judgment day. All agree, however, that the souls of the wicked eventually go to hell, or a place of torment, where each is punished according to his deeds on earth, until his sins have been atoned for, when he rises to the state of bliss. Each individual is punished according to the character of his wickedness; tattlers suffer severe pains in the mouth; those who have been cruel, jealous or treacherous, have pains in the heart, while murderers and thieves receive their punishment in their hands. The Moro hell has no fire. There is no material to replenish the fla nes, and these people of the tropics do not regard heat as
Showing their usual costume and cane, or staff ol authority.