OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
Catholic and generous Spain would soon reach the summit of its great work of civilization. The colony then exchanged its products and opened a bright commerce with India, the Moluccas, Borneo, Siam, China, Japan, etc., in other words, with all the countries between the Isthmus of Suez and the Strait of Behring. When they were quite ignorant of the declaration of war between Spain and England, an English squadron of thirteen ships, thoroughly equipped, and with a crew of 7,000 men, appeared at Manila Bay, September 18th, asking that the islands should be delivered to them, so as to add them to the vast dominions of Great Britain. The feeble and irresolute D. Manuel Antonio Rojo, then Archbishop of Manila and accidental governor of the islands, did not have the courage and patriotism that his office required in those critical moments.
The English received three ships more, as reinforcements, and on the 23d of the same month, they landed at night, under the command of General Draper, and on the 24th they started to besiege the city. Only 300 Spanish soldiers were defending the
himself, and as an old man of sixty, but inspired by justice and patriotism, he arrived at Bulucan, and gathered, with the alcalde of the place, all the Spaniards that were to be found, and also the priests, and even the supplies used for the holy sacrifice were put in the hands of the eminent patriot. The Augustines danced around the Spanish flag and talked holy war to the natives. Real regiments were formed, some of them commanded by the priests, and the enemy, who was already in possession of Manila, was soon besieged by our soldiers and Indians, who did not give them a moment of rest, and obliged them often to retreat into the city and hide under the shadow of their cannons.
The Franciscanos did an immense service to Spain on this occasion; they saved the ship a Acapulcoa and hid many of the enemy's treasures and gave them to the governor. Neither the offers made by the English to some of the traitors nor the rebellions formed by the enemy in some of the provinces could interrupt the fidelity and patriotism of most of the natives and Spaniards who were willing to shed all of their blood before ceding a span of land to
GROUP OF FILIPINO BOYS AND GIRLS.
Some of these children have the African cast of countenance, but there is no tinge of negro blood among them. They are distinctively Malay, with occasionally a mixture of Papuan blood. As American citizens they are hardly up to the mark.
daughter of Legazpi, who received 6,000 bombs and 30,000 bullets. Draper and Admiral Cornick asked once more for the surrender of the city and islands. The reply was favorable to the Castilians, who declared war and death to the Britons. In view of the trenches opened in the city and the multitude of enemies, mixed with Chinese prisoners and traitors, the loyal defenders, captained by their officers and the priests of the convents, very soon organized a regiment, killed many of the enemy, recognized as governor D. Simon de Auda y Salazar, whom they obeyed in the name of the king of Spain, and they demonstrated to the English army that it was not so easy to take possession of the islands defended by the Spanish flag. The city was at last taken, due in great part to the treason of the captains, who gave their services to the English.
The 4th of October, at ten oa clock at night, Auda went into a small boat guided by four Indians, and provided with $5,000 and forty sheets of sealed paper. With these elements he was going to officially declare war against the entire power of Great Britain. By
the invaders. The situation of those unfortunate conquerors was so bad that they were glad to leave the place which had cost them so much blood and where they did not rule over more land than that which their retreating feet covered.
In March, 1764, Auda entered the city victoriously, after having received the treaty of peace signed by the sovereigns of England and Spain.
The command having been given for the second time to D. Simon de Auda by His Majesty, he started to arrange matters on the islands, and renew the funds which had increased, on account of the war, more than 10,000,000 pesos. He established the Chamber of Commerce and cultivated the wealth of the country. His violent character and the opposition of the Archbishop, Senor Sancho de Santa Justa Rufina, brought him many troubles, and did not merit the royal appreciation. Having become sick, he retired to the estate of Recoletos de Imus, from where he was taken, upon his own request, to the hospital of Cavite, where he