OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
went direct to Penaranda and thence back to Manila. There I recorded the claim I had staked off in the hills of Luzon at the American Consulate. As there are no American mining laws in Manila, I am not quite sure whether it will hold good or not.a
Mr. Rebstock subsequently made an exploration into the gold fields of Mindanao, and he says that he found gold everywhere, but had no means of ascertaining its richness. He became fully satisfied, however, that the mines were as rich or richer than those in Luzon. But by this time the Presidenta s proclamation of December 21st, 1898, had been issued, and the conflict with the natives was precipitated, so that for the time being there was an end to all peaceful enterprises in the islands.
Previous to this, several of our army officers had visited the central and northern portions of Luzon and found among the savage mountain tribes gold nuggets of extraordinary size and value, and also quills filled with gold dust and coarse grains of the precious metal. Many of the savages wore rude rings made of pure gold which they had picked up in the beds of streams. All these evidences leave no room to doubt that the yellow metal exists in large quantities and that the gold-bearing
lead. In Camarines, a province of Luzon, lead ores occur, but are worked only for the gold they contain.
There have been reports of discoveries of quicksilver in Panay and Leyte, but they failed of verification. Accidental losses of this metal by prospectors and surveyors sometimes lead to reports of the discovery of deposits.
There is iron ore in abundance in Luzon, Carabello, Zebu, Panay, and doubtless in other islands. In Luzon it is found in the provinces of Laguna, Pampanga and Camarines Norte, but principally in Bulacan. The finest deposits are in the last-named province, near a small settlement named Camachin, which lies in latitude 150 7' and longitude 1240 47' east of Madrid. A small industry exists here, wrought iron being produced in a sort of bloomery and manufactured into plowshares. It would appear that charcoal
A COUNTRY HOUSE IN LUZON.
The steep roof and other characteristics show the Papuan style of architecture, which has been borrowed in this instance with good effect.
regions of the islands cover a considerable portion of the archipelago.
Coal exists in various provinces of the island of Luzon (Abra, Camarines, Batan, Sorsogon). The finest beds thus far discovered appear to be in the small island of Batan, lying to the east of the southern portion of Luzon, in latitude 130 19'. These seams vary from 2 feet 6 inches to 14 feet 8 inches in thickness. Coal has also been found in most of the southern islands of the group, such as Samar, Mindoro, Masbate, Panay, Negros, Zebu, Mindanao, and, in fact, the entire group; but it appears to be a highly carbonized quality of lignite, though it is said by Government chemists to be equal to the Japanese coal and that of Washington State, but not so good as the Welsh or Pennsylvania coals.
Silver and lead ores have been found in various places. A lead mine has been partly developed near the town of Zebu, 011 the island of the same name. The most important deposit of argentiferous galena is said to be at Torrijos, on the small island of Marinduque. A metric ton, or 1,000 kilograms, is said to contain 96 grams of silver, 6 grams of gold, and 565.5 kilograms of
pig iron might be produced to some advantage in this region. The lignites of the archipelago are probably unsuitable for iron blast furnaces.
Copper ores are reported from a great number of localities in the Philippines. They are said to occur in the following islands: Luzon (provinces of Lepanto, Benguet and Camarines), Mindoro, Capul, Masbate, Panay (province of Antique), and Mindanao (province of Surigao). Many of these occurrences are probably unimportant. The great island of Mindanao, being practically unexplored, is full of possibilities, but as yet no important copper deposit is known to exist there. A11 attempt was made to work the deposit in Masbate, but no success seems to have been obtained. On the other hand, Northern Luzon contains a copper region which is unquestionably valuable. The best known portion of this region lies about Mount Data, a peak given as 2,500 meters in height, lying in latitude 160 53', longitude 120A 58' east of Greenwich, or 1240 38' east of Madrid. The range of which Data forms one peak trends due north to Cape Lacay-Lacay and
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