OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
The news of the tragic death of the governor having reached Manila, the government was given to D. Pedro de Rojas, and a few days later to D. Luis P. Dasmarinas. He made an expedition north of Luzon as far as Cagayan, going through the entire country and establishing Spanish dominion over the vast provinces.
In 1595, the successor of Dasmarina, Don Francisco Tello de Guzuian, arrived. He re-established, according to the desire of the bishop, the Royal Audience, on the 8th of May, I59e* He also prepared military expeditions against the Moors of Mindanao and Jolo, and destroyed a strong Dutch squadron in the Bay of Manila.
At this time the Spaniards in Manila and the surrounding country did not exceed eight hundred men, counting all classes; and this fact becoming known to certain Chinese pirates, they came with 30,000 men to assassinate the entire Spanish colony. They had also been told that the city of Cavite was built of solid gold, and this greatly excited their cupidity. One of the bloodiest scenes registered in the annals of Philippine history now took place. The plot of the Chinese having been discovered by an Indian
the viceroy and Portuguese authorities of India against the Dutch, who were completely destroyed in Play-Honda (Zambales), the 14th of April, 1617.
These risky expeditions were continued by D. Alonso Fajardo and his successors, D. Fernando Silva and Nino de Tabora, and afterwards to the south of the islands against the Moors.
In 1635, under the government of D. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, the Fort of Zamboanga was constructed, with the object of suspending the excursions of the Moors. He conquered Jolo, subjected the Sultan of Mindanao, where he put a governor and three prisons, and in Zamboanga he repulsed and destroyed 5,000 enemies that had assaulted the city. During his time there was another rebellion of the Sangleys, who in number of 50,000 troops, provided with arms and artillery, committed during four months all kinds of scandals. By constant attacks of our troops and the natives, they were destroyed and nearly all of them killed by the knife. Corcuera was the first one who organized in due form the Philippine army, adding to it the cavalry, which until then they did not have.
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woman, those living in Manila left the city, burning the houses and assassinating every one they came across. They tried to take the fort by assault, which was defended by a few Spaniards, the religious of the convents and even by women. After many bloody fights and enormous efforts of the besieged, the Chinese were completely dispersed, having lost 23,000 dead. Those that re-
Gained alive were put into the gallows.
In 1609, governor being D. Juan de Silva, the Dutch blockaded the Port of Manila, but they were repulsed with a loss of three ships. The governor, not contented with this victory, which he led personally, persecuted the Dutch, who were allied with the Moors, and gathered at Cavite ten minor vessels, with 5 ooo men, 300 cannons, 56 of which were from 18 to 30, all made of bronze of the bells of the churches. The squadron had 4 5A A arrobas (25 lbs.) of powder, with the necessary ammunition, 5,000 biscuits and 13,000 fanegas of clean rice. The result of this expedition was an attempt of Silva against Java, and the alliance with
its class. It is a rare thing to see a pleasant face among these people. As a people that all good Americans desire to keep away from.
In 1645, the College of St. Thomas, founded in 1619, was erected as a university through the insistance of King Phillip IV. and Bula de Inocencio X. In this same year Manila felt the results of a terrible earthquake. The church and convent of San Agustin were the only buildings that remained on their foundations, and 600 victims died under the ruins of the houses.
D. Diego de Fajardo, like his ancestor, fought victoriously against the Dutch, who were mortal enemies of the Spanish civilization in these islands, and against the Moors of the southern islands, having been helped in these adventures, like general Corcuera, by the celebrated and valiant Fr. Pedro de San Agustin, called P. Capitan. To these events are due the feasts which the Philippines celebrate with the name of Naval de Manila, which is partly celebrated by the authorities of this city.
During the period of the great D. Sebastian Maurique de Lara (1667), the Chinese pirate, Kuc-Sing, attempted to invade the archipelago, which caused great alarm in the islands. There