OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
squadron was dispersed by the storms. This, however, did not discourage him, and he remained at the head of his fleet, but was overtaken by death. He was succeeded by Martin Tuiguez, who fell in battle with the Portuguese, his fleet being almost destroyed.
The treaty of peace with Portugal having been signed, and the king of Spain having renounced his projects on the Moluccas, he fixed his attention on the other islands, previously discovered, for the conquest of which he had another armada prepared, which, under the command of Ruy Lopez de Villabobos, sailed from the port of Natividad, in New Spain (Mexico), the 1st of November, 1542. Great miseries and hardships discouraged Villabobos, to the degree that, notwithstanding the emperora s strict orders not to go near the Moluccas, he had to land there; and worried by his ill-fate, in having been obliged to disobey his king, he died in Amboina. By the death of Villabobos, the squadron was dispersed and the few Spaniards that remained returned to Spain in Portuguese vessels.
After twenty years, Phillip II. sent Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and P. Fr. Andres de Urdaneta, with instructions to make the
inform His Majesty of the favorable results of the expedition, and therefore, in June, 1565, he sent Father Urdaneta, who, notwithstanding the rude storms, found the true route from the Philippines to New Spain.
In the meantime, Legazpi, with the advice and help of the Agustine Fathers and the captains of the expedition, continued to pacify Cebu and the neighboring islands. He induced their ruler, Tubas, to accept baptism, made terms of peace with the Indians, built a fort, measured the land for the houses of the Spaniards, and, at last, in 1570, he solemnly founded the city of Cebu, after having received from Spain the titles of ruler and governor of the lands which he might conquer.
Legazpi now ordered the new master of camp, Martin de Goyti, and his nephew, Capt. Juan de Salcedo, to conquer the Island of Luzon. On this island they had some slight battles with the Batangas, and even with those of Manila, which was governed by some dattos, who had come from Borneo; but having won the first battles, the chiefs swore obedience to the king of Spain. This news having reached Legazpi, who was in Panay, he im-
GROUP OF THE BETTER CLASS OF FILIPINO WOMEN, SUBURBS OF MANILA.
The two women standing second and third on the right of the group are Mestizos, and their more agreeable cast of countenance is inherited from their Spanish father. The Malay predominates in the others, and shows plainly in the rather unpleasant scowl of their faces.
islands subject to the Spanish crown, and to bring the crown of the natives.
The new fleet, like the previous one, sailed from the port of Natividad, on the 21st of November, 1564. After a few daysa voyage, one of the vessels of the expedition, under the command of Capt. Alonso Arellano, disappeared, and after many vicissitudes he returned to New Spain (Mexico), relating different stories and calling himself discoverer of a new way to the islands.
Legazpi left behind him the Barbados and Marianas, which Martin Tuiguez named the Ladrones, and, at last, on the 13th of February, 1565, he sighted the Philippines, so named, as we have said, since the expedition of Villabobos. The adventurers entered into negotiations with the Indians of Cebu, in April of the same year, and although suspicious at the beginning, they soon became firm friends of the Spaniards, and were practically the base of the conquest of the archipelago. Having secured this alliance and subdued the savages of Cebu, Legazpi judged it convenient to
mediately sailed for Manila, where he was received with great demonstrations of respect and submission, by Lacandola, ruler, or datto, of Tondo, and Rajah Matanda, who was the datto of Manila, although on account of his losses in battle, he had resigned the command of the armies in favor of his nephew, Rajah Soliman. Legazpi landed and took possession of the land, founded the city of Manila, on the 19th of May, 1571, making it the capital of the archipelago; and having conquered the Visayas, he took tha necessary steps to subdue all the provinces of Luzon, which he named New Castile. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, whose intelligence and devotion gave Spain the rich jewel of the Philippines, died on the 20th of August, 1572. Being a sagacious statesman of remarkable ability, he gained dominion over the chiefs and kings of the islands, and was in a short time greatly admired and loved by the natives. His heroic efforts were constantly set to enlarge Castile, propagate Christianity, maintain friendship among the discoverers, protect commerce, and to give civilization to these islands.