OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
party strong enough for its own protection, we were usually provided with an escort of Filipino soldiers.
a Frequently we were joined by natives who had been awaiting an opportunity to go from one town to another in safety, bringing the number of our party at one time up to forty-seven. Often from the high points on the road we could see the smoke of at least one Igorrote campfire, frequently within a few miles of a large Filipino town. There can hardly be any direct method of attack against these savages, since they build no villages and have a vast wilderness for refuge; but at the time of our visit the Filipinos had already begun to build small forts at the points most frequently subject to their menacesa a step in advance of any the Spaniards had taken.
a At the town of Carig, near the frontier of the province of Isabella, we encountered Major Villa, the military governor of the province, who had been sent from his capital city by his superior officer, Colonel Tirona, the commander of the northeastern military district, to demand our passports, and, if wre did not have them, to examine into the purpose of our expedition. In carrying out his orders, this officer kept us for seven days quartered in a deserted convent in this miserable village. At the end of that time,
by the permission of Colonel Tirona, with whom we succeeded in opening direct communication, we were allowed to proceed.
a A few miles from Carig we reached the Rio Grande de Cagayan, down which we descended in canoes to its mouth. We spent
two days at I la-
military government consisted of an officer in command of a military district, having under his orders one officer as military governor of each province and one as governor of each important town. The military government was the dominant one. We remarked on this condition several times, and were told that it would last only during the state of war. At Aparri we received proof of the sincerity of this statement. Word had been received from Hong-Kong that our commissioners at Paris, negotiating the terms of the treaty of peace, had plainly indicated that it was their intention not to return the islands to Spain. Relieved from their great apprehension by this action, the Filipino population began at once to see rosy visions of peace descending on their war-worn country. Steps were immediately taken to adjust existing conditions to the new state of things. Colonel Tirona, the governor of the northeastern military district, took the lead by relinquishing the control of affairs in the provinces comprised in his district in favor of a civil official chosen by the people. I was present at the impressive ceremony which solemnized this change in the province of Cagayan. The ceremony took place in the cathedral at Aparri and was attended by all the local officials of the towns of the province, as well as by any military officers who could be spared from their du-
ties. Colonel Tirona placed the usual insignia of office a a gold-headed canea in the tiands of the gov-e r n o r -elect at the close
gan, the capital of the province of Isabella, and three at Aparri, the only seaport on the northern coast of the island, towns
AMONG THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTHERN LUZON.
Showing two of the native attendants who accompanied Messrs. Sargent and Wilcox. These men worked for ten cents per day, and thought they were doing well.
having a population of about 15,000 each. We were extremely well entertained. At Ilagan a large ball was given in our honor, and two Spanish operas were presented by the young people of the town. From this performance we received most pleasing proof of the humor, intelligence and refinement of our entertainers.
a At the towns we had previously visited we had occasionally seen numerous Spanish prisoners, all of whom were apparently enjoying full liberty within the limits of the town. At Ilagan we saw Spanish soldiers and ex-civil officials in the same status; but the priests had been differently dealt with; they were too dangerous to be left at large, we were told, and were accordingly confined in a convent. We saw them one morning, to the number of eighty-four, lined up in the street in charge of a squad of Filipino soldiers.
a At Aparri I witnessed a ceremony which, at the time, I considered pregnant with significance, and I have seen no reason since for changing my opinion. During our entire journey we had noticed the existence of a distinct civil and military government. The civil government was simple and efficient, consisting of four officials for each province and four for each town. The
of a short speech, in which he said that, now that a state of peace seemed probable, he desired to divest himself of the unusual authority which it had been necessary for him temporarily to exercise, and to assume his proper position as a servanta not a rulera of the people. The governor, in reply, expressed his thanks to the colonel and to all of the expeditionary forces for the incalculable service they^ had rendered in freeing the people from Spanish rule and declared it was their purpose to expend the last drop of their blood, if necessary, in defending the liberty thus gained, against the encroachments of any nation whatsoever. The governor then took the oath of office, being followed in turn by each of the three other provincial officials, the heads of the departments of justice, revenue and the police. It was the colonela s intention to have a similar ceremony performed in each of the other provinces under his control. Had the Filipino government been allowed to work out its own salvation, this movement could hardly have failed to become historical.
a At Aparri we saw proof also of the extent of Aguinaldoa s authority. Four natives had been tried for robbery and attempted murder and had been sentenced to death. At the time of our visit they were awaiting the arrival from Malolos of the ratification of
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