OUR ISLANDS AND THEIR PEOPLE.
they cannot be lifted without falling to pieces. Warehouses where goods are stored frequently have to be pulled down and rebuilt on account of the depredations of this insect, which cuts the timbers until they become dangerous.
Many species of Philippine ants are comparatively harmless, constituting mere household pests; but others bite viciously and some have stings. Immense columns of black ants are sometimes seen marching through the woods with the regularity of a well-drilled army. Scouts precede the column and skirmishers follow it, while officers skirt the sides, giving orders and looking after stragglers. If a hunter or an animal approaches too near one of these marching columns, they set upon the intruder and bite or sting him until he seeks safety in flight; and discretion in such a case is always the better part of valor. There is a large and vicious brown ant which both stings and bites. The bite draws blood, and the sting causes swelling and severe pain. This species nests in the dead leaves on the ground, and is especially dreaded because it gives no sign of its presence until it is ready to attack, when a
exclusively by the impregnated female, which burrows in the skin for the purpose of depositing its eggs. These usually number about sixty in each sac, and they scatter in the tissues of the skin and produce troublesome ulcers, which, in the Philippines, may necessitate amputation unless removed. This is done by the natives by digging them out with a sharp scalpel or needle; and when in regions infested by this pest the operation should be performed every day. A sponge bath of tobacco juice or a strong decoction of carbolic acid is also said to be effective.
Mosquitoes are troublesome at Manila and throughout the low country regions, but they are not found in the mountains or in open places exposed to the breeze. Without protecting bars, sleep is impossible, either in the day or night, in all places that are haunted by this pest.
The houses, however, are comparatively free from crawling insects. These are destroyed by a small lizard, with a big, ugly head, and the ordinary house newt, both of which are harmless and are encouraged and petted by the inhabitants, who appreciate
BATTERY L, 3d U. S. ARTILLERY, AT MALOLOS.
This photograph was taken after several days of hard fighting, before "the boysa had shavedland put on their Sunday clothes.
number of individuals advance in concert and begin to sting and bite at the same time. If they find no enemy after being disturbed, they apparently fall into a violent passion, and charge around snapping their jaws with a sharp, clicking sound that can be heard at a distance of several yards.
There is another species/nearly an inch in length and with a thick, heavy body, that builds mud nests in bushes. These insects have jaws like a bull-terrier and possess all the tenacity of that breed of animals. They lay hold of an object with their teeth and frequently hold on after their heads are severed from their bodies.
But the most troublesome forest pest is a tiny red tick, of the flea species, which the Tagalogs call tungan. It is doubtless the same as the chigo or jigger of the West Indies, a species of which is also found on the American Continent, where it is usually called chigger. It is peculiar in the fact that it infests certain limited localities, where it swarms by the million, while only a few yards distant none whatever can be found; and it never ventures beyond the limits which it seems to fix for itself. The biting is done
their services. The newt is a hideous-looking little amphibious reptile, of the tadpole species, usually about six inches in length. It has a voracious appetite, feeding on small fish, larvae, tadpoles, insects, and even the young of its own species. It is equally at home in the water and on the land, and its fondness for insects causes it to remain much of the time in and around the houses of the people. It is very tenacious of life under mutilation and exposure, and is noted for its power to renew lost portions of its body. It is almost satanic in appearance and in some of its characteristics, but the natives, knowing its good qualities, treat it as a pet, and strangers soon become accustomed to the ugly little creature. If a newt is caught by the tail, it drops that appendage and runs away, knowing that it can soon grow another. The lizard, which works in companionship with the newt, is called chacon by the natives. Neither of these reptiles, however, ventures to contend against mice or rats, and these accordingly flourish by the thousands. There are likewise myriads of cockroaches, but fleas, house-flies and bugs are scarce, owing to the industry of our