New York [etc.]:
D. Appleton and Company,
Text on page 300
16 THE FORMER, PHILIPPINES THRU FOREIGN EYES
reals per day. The day's pay at that time was half a real, and board a quarter of a real, making together three-quarters of a real.
By daily pay. Half share.
The workman therefore earned daily.............. 0.75 r. or 1.375 r.
Wages amounted to per picul.................... 12. 6 r. or 8. 25 r.
Profit of the planters after deduction of the wages.. 3. 9 r. or 8. 25 r.
The edges of the petioles, which contain much finer fiber than the middle parts, are separately divided into strips an inch wide, and with strong pressure are drawn several times under the knife. This substance, which is called lupis, is in high request, being employed in the native weaving; while bandala is chiefly used for ships' rigging.*
Grades of iupis% Lupis, according to the fineness of the fiber, is sorted into four classesafirst, Binani; second, Totogna; third, Sogotan; and fourth, Cadaclan. A bundle of these is then taken up in the left hand, and, while with the right the first three sorts are inserted between the fingers, the fourth is held between the thumb and forefinger. This last description is no longer used in fine weaving, and is therefore sold with bandala. After the fine sorts have been pounded in a rice-mortar, in order to render the fiber soft and pliable, they are severally knotted into one another, and converted into web.
Lupis fabrics. Generally the first sort is worked as woof with the second as warp, and the third as warp with the second as woof. The fabrics so woven are nearly as fine as pina fabrics (Nipis de Pina), and almost equal the best quality of cambric; and, notwithstanding the many little nodules occasioned by the tangling of the fiber, which may be discerned on close inspection, are clearer and
* In 1868, A100 per ton was paid for lupis, although only imported in small quantitiesaabout five tons per annumaand principally used at one time in France in the manufacture of a particular kind of underclothing. The fashion soon, however, died out. Quitol, a less valuable sort of lupis, could be sold at A75 per ton.
Lupis and bandala.Lupis and bandala.