National Geographic Society,
Text on page 1236
A BUKIDNON PRESIDENCIA
The people of the subprovince of Bukidnon, in Mindanao, have showed a surprising willingness to come down from the mountains, settle in towns, and adopt the garb of civilization. Their villages are models of cleanliness and order, and they take great pride in building good houses. This photograph shows a presidencia, or municipal building, with the town officials in the foreground (see pictures, pages 1164, 1165, 1166, and text, pages 1160 and 1251).
small feet by Chinese women (see page 1185).
The Tingians are a kindly, gentle people, and the immaculate cleanliness of their persons and of their homes promptly commends them to the average American. Not only are their houses clean, but their cooking leaves little to be desired. It is said that a Tingian woman who serves her husband a mess of boiled rice which is dirty or even soggy exposes herself to danger of divorce. Immediately after each meal the cooking pots are taken to the river bank and scrubbed inside and out with clean water and sand, after which each is returned to its proper place in the kitchen.
The Tingians are supposed to be monogamous, but the rich men rather openly keep supernumerary wives or concubines, and their lawful wives do not seem to object to the practice.
Their houses are as good as, and often
better than, those of Filipino neighbors with whom they rub elbows throughout most of the territory which they occupy. They are industrious farmers and raise horses and cattle in considerable numbers. Many of them are frugal, save their money, and become comparatively wealthy. They are a naturally pacific people, but when compelled to fight with savage neighbors in Kalinga and Bontoc have shown themselves able to hold their own.
THE WILD TINGIAN TRIBESMEN
The wild section of the tribe inhabits the subprovince of Apayao. They have commonly been called Apayaos, or Kalingas. There is certainly no fitness in the latter designation. Their language closely resembles the Tingian dialect spoken in Abra; their dress is said to be practically identical with that of the Tingians who inhabited Abra a century and a half or two centuries ago. The Span-