Except in the Walled City, a network of canals, called esteros, each bearing a name, cuts through the town. The esteros are highways for freight, the boats of various types taking the place of drays and trucks. The canals also serve as drains, the citya s elevation being only three or four feet. They are kept as clean as possible, but the water is very muddy
CASCOS, HOUSE BOATS, ON THE PASIG RIVER.
and the natives are apt, through long habit, to throw things into the estero a when the health officer isna t looking.a
The river life is very interesting to the newcomer. Fifteen thousand people live on the cascos and lorchas which ply the Pasig and its tributaries. People are born, live and die on these houseboats, feeling aliens on the land. To me the casco and the carabao are the most Malayan features of Manila. The carabao loves to wallow in the stream and the casco never deserts it. This long, narrow craft is covered with woven bamboo awnings. Stern and prow are ornamented in weird design. The living apartment is well aft, consisting of a slat