xviii CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH 159
vertical pieces of the cradle (see PI. 166). The mother nurses the infant in her arms during most of her leisure moments, and she hushes it to sleep by crooning old lullabies as she rocks it in her arms or in a cradle suspended from a pliable stick.1 The father hardly handles it during its first year, but many fathers nurse and dandle the older infants for hours together in the most affectionate manner ; and, if the child's grandfather is living, he generally becomes its devoted attendant.
About the end of its first year the infant begins to crawl and toddle about the room and gallery, to sprawl into the hearth and eat charcoal, and to get into all sorts of mischief in the usual way. During the first year he lives chiefly on his mother's milk, but takes also thick rice-water from an early age.
Towards the end of the first year the lobes of the ears are perforated, and a ring (or, in the case of a girl, several small rings) is inserted in each. Of childish affections of health, the commonest at this age is yaws (frambsia) about the mouth. Kayan mothers believe that every child must go through this, and that one attack protects against its recurrence ; and the rareness of the disease in adults seems to bear out this belief. Most of the
1 We give the original and translation of one such lullaby :a
" Megiong ujong bayoh
Mansip anak yapacheep, cheep. Lematei telayap, Telayap abing, Lematei Laki Laying oban, Lematei Laki Punan oban." The translation runs :a
" The branches of the bayoh tree are swaying With the sound of little chicksacheep, cheep, The lizards are dead, There are no lizards any more, Gray-haired Laki Laying is dead, The old jungle man is dead."
The reference to the Punan in this lullaby may be explained by saying that the children are frightened sometimes by being told that the jungle man will take them.The reference to the Punan in this lullaby may be explained by saying that the children are frightened sometimes by being told that the jungle man will take them.