xvi MAGIC, SPELLS, AND CHARMS 127
some half-human monster. On careful examination of several specimens we have found the empugau to consist of a large cocoanut in its husk, tricked out with a rude face mask having part of the fibrous husk combed out to look like hair. The Ibans regard it with some awe, and it seems probable that it has formerly played some part in magical procedures.
Love charms are used by most of the peoples, though the Kayans and Kenyahs are exceptions, since they prefer to rely chiefly upon the power of music and personal attractions. These charms are in almost all cases strongly odorous substances. The Iban youth strings together a necklace of strongly scented seed known as buah balong. This he generally carries about with him, and, when his inclination is directed towards some fair one, he places it under her pillow, or endeavours to persuade her to wear it about her neck. If she accepts it, he reckons her half won.
Klemantans, among whom love charms go by the generic name sangkil, make use
r a ? r u r u- u r Iban Trapper's
ol a variety of charms, of which one of charm, the most used is a scented oil that they contrive to smuggle on to the garments or other personal property of the woman.
Those that have had much contact with Malays make use of pieces of paper on which they scrawl certain conventional patterns.
Charms are used by Ibans to ensure success in trapping. The trapper carries a stick one end of which is carved to represent the human form (Fig. 83). He uses this to measure the appropriate height of the traps set for animals of different species.Charms are used by Ibans to ensure success in trapping. The trapper carries a stick one end of which is carved to represent the human form (Fig. 83). He uses this to measure the appropriate height of the traps set for animals of different species.