THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF JAVA 9
forests, the natives of the present day still believe in the power and might of a demon known as the Baksha and fear him accordingly ; doubtless this name for the Kalang thus originated.1
These Kalang did not become extinct in Java until well into the Hindu period.2 They were, of course, as Adolf Bernhard Meyer in " Die Kalangs auf Java" shows,negritos, and, like the rest of these scattered oceanic negritos, the mere survivors of a former widespread autochthonous race, which had lived in inaccessible parts, like the present-day negritos of the Philippines, Borneo, New Guinea, and Tasmania (till lately),3 the beddahs of Ceylon, the Andaman
1 The Balcsha has been described as a terrible creature with eyes set obliquely in the head, ugly, broad, bulky, misshapen, and with terrible teeth. * It haunts only the forests and the tops of hills, and was said to be given to decoying children and solitary women. It had also a teirible cry, which is notewoithy as corresponding with the cry of the ancient Javan, who had a mustering call or shriek in the dense forests of Java. Miss Mary Frere in her book " Old Deccan Days in Hindu Fairy Tales mentions this superstition as still existing in Scinde, where, however, the demon is not known as Baksha, but Djinn. We learn from Parker's valuable, book on " Ancient Ceylon " that when the first Aryan invaders entered India they brought with them an exaggerated belief in the existence of various classes of evil beings, among whom those termed Baksha sa occupied the leading place. When the Indian epic poem the Bamayana was composed, the Bakshasa had developed into beings who constantly made their appearance before men. They were first described as wandering malignant demons of the great Vindhya forest, which extended far to the south of India, and in the later portions of that work they were represented as occupying Ceylon. It is clear from all this, therefore, that they were wild men-aso wild, that by those others of the human race who had become more civilised they were looked upon as demons, or semi-demons, who only came out by night ; for, as Parker tells us, " these demons were thought to be specially active and powerful during the darkness of the night." The ordinances of Manu confirm the statement that the Bakshasa were flesh-eating demons and that night was the spcial time for their activity. If this wild autochthonous race did not arise in India, it is certain it did so in the East Indies, and the greater probability lies with the latter alternative. Apparently they were originally more monkey than man.
2 A few of the Kalang existed even later.
8 C. R. Enock, F.R.C.S., says : " The black woolly-haired races were the first inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago, which doubtless has been divided into islands during the human period." The recently extinct TasmaniaAA8 C. R. Enock, F.R.C.S., says : " The black woolly-haired races were the first inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago, which doubtless has been divided into islands during the human period." The recently extinct TasmaniaA A