DEPENDENCIES UPON SIAM.
temples, and priests, who are accused of living very profligate lives. On the top of the mountain there is a Buddha's foot, an object of great veneration.
Xieng Rai, another city in the same district, has been often taken and retaken from the Birmese. It was captured by the Laos in 1844.
There is a considerable trade with the province of Yunan in China, carried on by mules, which require a month for the journey, through woods and mountains.
Xieng Mai is a city of great antiquity. Phra Ruang1 who was King of Siam towards the end of the fifth century, married his brother to a princess of Xieng Mai, and gave him the government of the country.
In the Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, there is a report written by M. Grandjean, a Catholic missionary, from which the following extracts have been made. He left Bangkok on the 5th December, 1843, and returned thither at the beginning of the rainy season in the following year. Passing up the Meinam as far as Thoen, his party abandoned their boats, and engaged elephants to travel through a country of immense mountains and perilous defiles, where they had only the shade of forest-trees to protect them by day, and large fires at night to keep off the multitudes of wild beasts. At a cost of twenty-six francs for elephants, and food for a party of six persons, they reached Xieng Mai,* the capital of the Laos country, on the i8th
* The ancient capital of Laos was called Lan Chang, which means " ten millions of elephants." Master or General of the Elephants is usually one of the titles of the Phra Kalahom or Prime Minister of Siam.aL* Loubre, p. 89.* The ancient capital of Laos was called Lan Chang, which means " ten millions of elephants." Master or General of the Elephants is usually one of the titles of the Phra Kalahom or Prime Minister of Siam.a L* LoubA re, p. 89.