Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co., Ltd,
Text on page 234
THE IDEAS OF KU-HUNG-MING
THE HISTORY OF CHINA
(Article which was never published, as it reached the Tribuna together with the mournful news of the authoras death)
WITH the study of the present revolution in China I have been able to understand the moral cause determining the war in Tripoli.
a In China, as in every society, the population can always be divided into three classes: the military or aristocratic (always Manchu); the middle class (amongst which are the so-called literary people), and the people. So the modem history of China can be divided into three periods. The first period dates back from the advent of the Tsing dynasty (1644), to the rebellion of the Taipings (1853). In this first period the Manchus were in power, that is, the aristocracy (golden period, during which reigned the famous emperors, Kan-Si and Chen-long). China during the first period can be called Aristocratic China.
a The second period dates from the Taiping rebellion to the war with Japan (1895), and marks the supremacy of the middle class. China in this period might be called Mediocre China, above all for the inferiority of those who upheld the Government in those years.
a The third period marks the first dawn of the reform movement, which protested against the humiliations of the war with Japan, 234a The third period marks the first dawn of the reform movement, which protested against the humiliations of the war with Japan, 234