side of the Batok. When doing so, we fancy from time to time, lhat we are riding in a desert. The grey sand sparkles in the sun, sends up whirling eddies in the trembling hot layers above its surfaces, and causes a mirage that reminds one of the fata morgana.
Here and there grow greyish heather and lank cypress grass. The Roedjak, the south part of the Sand-sea, is better covered with a thick grass carpet and ferns. Here graze hundreds of half-wild horses, that run about entirely free. At times we observe their bones lying about here and there, which is a sign that a dying horse is sometimes attacked and devoured by wild dogs, called adjak.
Should dark clouds gather over the Tjemara-Lawang, and float slowly over the softly-rimpled waves of sand and hillocks lhat have been swept there by the wind, then we imagine ourselves suddenly removed to the shores of the North-Sea, and fancy we breathe the chilly air of a misty autumn day.
On arriving at the east side, the Bromo appears in its entire circumference as a gigantic, naked compact belt of lava, with sharp edges and deeply notched and carved slopes. A labyrinth of rounded sand-hills, confusedly mingled together, has been washed away from its foot, by the water. The shining tops of these hills, hardened by the sun, are marked out like the lining of square tarpaulins against the opaque grey slopes caused by the rain. These rain gullies begin about the middle of the slope. Above, it gets steeper, and covered all over with volcanic ashes.
From one point of this border, we observe wooden stairs which run up to the edge of the crater. These stairs are renewed by the Teng-geresc men once a year, when the great Bromo festivities take place, which they celebrate in honour of their principal god, Dewa-Soelan-Iloe, in the month of May. Thousands of people camp on this occasion on the Sand-sea at the foot of the Bromo, whilst their priests, dressed oddly
in robes made of different highlycoloured patchwork, and adorned with rough cabalistic figures, ascend the stairs, and throw offerings into the crater. Dried Indian corn-stalks, palm-leaves, empty match-boxes, and other remains remind one long afterwards of the presence of these crowds.
The huge pieces of stone spread about the Bromo and upon its slopes, are the result of extraordinary violent eruptions. They consist