of a forest. Works on judicial astrology are also frequent subjects of Javanese literature, under the name of pawukon. To these may be added a few ethical works, and songs known by the name uran-uran, and rerepen, the last seldom, however, committed to writing. Two ancient manuscripts only have been discovered in Java. These are in the ancient character and language, but their dates have not been satisfactorily determined; and the ancient inscriptions on stone and brass must be considered as the earliest specimens extant of the literature of Java, and they will carry us back only to the 12th century of our own time.
The greatest part of Malay literature, like that of Java, consists of romances, known under the Sanscrit name of charitra, or the Arabic one of hikayat. Their subjects are taken from the Hindu epics already mentioned,afrom the local legends of Java,a from the Mohammedan legends of Arabia, and from the story of Malay princes hardly less fabulous. Such compositions differ, however, in this respect from those of the Javanese, that the greater number of them are in prose. The Malays are possessed of no ancient manuscripts, nor inscriptions on stone or brass. Their whole literature, all in the Arabic character, is certainly not of greater antiquity than their conversion to the Mahommedan religion: indeed, the earliest recorded specimen of it is the vocabulary of the Italian Pigafetta, collected in the Moluccas in the year 1521, during the first navigation round the world.
The literature of Bali is in the Kawi, or recondite language of Java, and no doubt borrowed from that of the larger island. The Bugis of Celebes have a considerable body of literature, consisting like that of the Javanese and Malays, for the most part, of romances, some of them founded on local legends, while others are paraphrases of Javanese and Malay works. Very little, however, is known of the literature of this people, as no competent European has hitherto made their language his study. The literature of the nations of the Philippine Archipelago, the rudest of all the people of the Indian islands who had invented letters, is said to be confined to a few songs. Examples of these, but without translations, have been given by Spanish grammarians, go that their merits or demerits cannot be tested.
LOKON. The name of a mountain 5250 feet high, and with an active volcano in the northern peninsula of Celebes, and in north latitude 1A 25'. LOMBATA. The name of a considerable island lying between Floria and Timur, and containing an area of 396 square geographical miles.
liOMBOC. This is the second island due east of Java, and lies between the islands of Bali and Sumbawa, divided from the first by a strait from four to five, and from the last by one from two to three leagues broad, respectively called the Straits of Lomboc and of Alas. To the north, Lomboc is washed by the Sea of Java, and to the south by the Pacific. The name of Lomboc, or as he writes it, Lomboch, is mentioned by Pigafetta, in 1522, or within eleven years of the first appearance of Europeans in the waters of the Malay Archipelago. He had not seen it, and simply enumerates it with other islands, such as End6 or Flores, Bouton, Sumbawa, and Java Minor, or Bali, and evidently from the information of the native pilot who accompanied the companions of Magellan from the Moluccas. From this it may be concluded that it was, at the time, a name for the island known to native traders, although it has been generally believed to have been imposed by European navigators. There are two small villages of this name which in Javanese is literally that of the capsicum, from one or other of which that of the island was probably taken. At present it is not known to the natives or their neighbours in this sense, and the usual name is Sasak, which in the Malay and Javanese languages signifies aa raft,a and sometimes a temporary bridge. Another name, which is occasionally used, particularly in connection with the titles of the princes of the island, is Selaparang. The first part of this compounded word, Sela, is a Bynonym for stone or rock, in Javanese, borrowed from Sanscrit, and parang, in Javanese, is the name for a kind of calcareous rock. If this be the correct etymology, the name may be taken from one of the ranges of the mountains of Lomboc, which is principally composed of recent limestone.
Lomboc lies between south latitudes 8A 10' and 8A 45', and east longitudes 115* 42' and 116A 46', and has an area of 1,656 geographical square miles. Its prevailing geo* logical formation is volcanic. Two mountain ranges pass through it from east to west, the one wholly volcanic, lying towards the northern, and the other of recent ealcareous formation, lying towards the southern side of the island. Between these, and occupying the centre of the island, is an extensive plain, intersected in one place, and to the length of ten miles, by a line of voloanic hills, many in number, and notLomboc lies between south latitudes 8A 10' and 8A 45', and east longitudes 115* 42' and 116A 46', and has an area of 1,656 geographical square miles. Its prevailing geo* logical formation is volcanic. Two mountain ranges pass through it from east to west, the one wholly volcanic, lying towards the northern, and the other of recent ealcareous formation, lying towards the southern side of the island. Between these, and occupying the centre of the island, is an extensive plain, intersected in one place, and to the length of ten miles, by a line of voloanic hills, many in number, and not