words which are common to so many tongues, have been chiefly derived from the languages of the two most civilised and adventurous nations of the Malayan Archipelago, the Malay, and Javanese.
This conclusion is certainly in accordance with what we know of the manner in which foreign languages have been intermixed with vernacular ones in other parts of the world. I* is the way in which Greek came to be intermixed with the languages of ancient Italy ; Latin with those of Southern Europe, the Teutonic language with the latter Latin with the Celtic tongues, Arabic with the languages of Central Asia and of eome parts of Europe, Persian with the languages of Hindustan, and Sanscrit with these as well as with the languages of the countries between Hindustan and China, and those of the Indian Islands. In these cases, the strange languages have found their way by various means,asometimes by colonisation or settlement, sometimes by conquest and settlement, and sometimes through the agency of religious conversion. In the caae of the Malay and Javanese languages, the intermixture seems to have been chiefly effected through settlement originating in commercial intercourse, and not, improbably, sometimes in buccaneering expeditions. Independent of their superior civilisation, the grounds for fixing on the Malay and Javanese nations as the instruments of the wide diffusion of language under consideration, are :athat when we have the earliest authentic information of the Indian Islands through the arrival of the Portuguese, they
1 ne were found conducting the whole carrying trade, their adventures extending 1A the Peninsula and Sumatra to the Moluccas aud Philippines ;athat the language j? one of them was then everywhere the medium of intercommunication;athat olonies of one or the other were found in various parts of both Archipelagos; and, above all ^hat their languages may be distinctly traced, not only in all the tongues of those Archipelagos, but also in the language of Madagascar, and in the dialects of the islands of the Pacific. Of the general prevalence of the Malay trade and language throughout both Archipelagos, before the arrival of Europeans, we have the most un~ Questionable evidence. By means of a Malay interpreter in the fleet, the companions of Magellan were everywhere understood in the Philippines by all parties concerned in trade with strangers, although not by the mass of the people. This same language served them afterwards in Borneo and the Moluccas. De Barros tells us that in Sumatra And the Moluccas it was the only medium of communication between different zL*ueS, Speaking of the last of these, he says: a Two facts give reason to believe that the habitants of these islands consist of various and diverse nations. The first is the
*n nstancy, hatred and suspicion with which they watch each other; and the second, V?cA reat variety of their languages; for it is not with them as with the Bisayans, if re one language prevails with all. The variety, on the contrary, is so great, that W two places understood each otheras tongue. Even the pronunciation differs n?, iv for some form their words in the throat: others at the point of the tongue; Wthers between the teeth; and others in the palate. If there be any tongue through A hach they can understand each other, it is the Malay of Malacca, to which the W bles have lately addicted themselves since the Moors have resorted to them for tho clove.a*aDecade hi. Book v., c. 5.
The proportion of Malay and Javanese to be found in the languages with which thev are intermixed, varies with the facilities or difficulties of communication, between the Malay and Javanese nations and tbe other tribes. Generally, the proportion is greatest towards the western part of the Archipelagos and diminishes as we recede from them. A few examples may be given. In a thousand words of the Lampung, a language of Sumatra, intermediate between the Malay and Javanese, there are 555 words, of these two languages; in the Sunda of Java there are 530; in the Bali 470 ; in the* Bugis of Celebes 226; in the Kayan of Borneo 114 ; in the Tagala of the Philippines 23; in the Madagascar 20; and in the Maori or New Zealand 16. Of the two languages, namely the Malay and Javanese, the proportion of words in the different foreign tongues is always largest of the first, except in the languages in the immediate neighbourhood of Java, such as the Lampung, the Sunda, the Madurese and Balinese. This refers, however, only to words exclusively Malay or exclusively Javanese, for the greater portion of the words belong equally to both tongues. The prevalence of Malay words was what might naturally be looked for, since it was found on the arrival of Europeans what it still continues to be, the common medium of intercommunication from Sumatra to the Philippines.
The infused words have undergone some alterations in sense, but still more in form the amount of corruption in both respects is generally great in proportion gg w*e recede from Java and Sumatra, the seats of the adopted languages, ^ The following are examples. In Malay and Javanese, keris is a poniard or dagger; in theThe infused words have undergone some alterations in sense, but still more in form the amount of corruption in both respects is generally great in proportion gg w*e recede from Java and Sumatra, the seats of the adopted languages, ^ The following are examples. In Malay and Javanese, keris is a poniard or dagger; in the