or New Zealand,athe words forehead, sky, great, stone, fruit* to drink, to die, are Malay or Javanese, although of these two tongues there are not above a hundred in the whole language. As to the personal pronouns, which have often been referred to as evidence of a common tongue, in so far as concerns the languages under examination, they are certainly the most interchangeable of all classes of words, and cannot therefore, be received as evidence. Some of them, for example, are found in the Polynesian dialects, where, in a vocabulary of five thousand words, there are not above a hundred that are Malayan. The numerals are clearly out of the category of early invented words; for they imply a very considerable social advancement, and seem to belong to the class most likely to be adopted from strangers by savages of tolerably natural capacity and progressing in civilisation. The Australians are not savages of this description; and, although with opportunities of borrowing the Malayan numerals, they have not done so, and no tribe of them counts beyond a two.a On the other hand, all the Polynesian nations, and even the Papuan negros of New Guinea, have adopted them to a greater or less.
The words which appear to me to afford the surest test of the affiliation of languages, are those which are indispensable to their grammatical structure,awhich constitute^ as it were, their frame-work, and without which they cannot be spoken or written. These are the prepositions which represent the cases of languages of complex structure, and the auxiliaries which represent times and moods. If a sentence can be constructed by words of the same origin in two or more languages, such languages may be considered as sister tongues; to be, in fact, dialects of, or to have sprung from one stock. In applying this test, it is not indispensable that the sentence so constructed should be strictly grammatical; or that the parties speaking sister dialects should be intelligible to each other. The languages of the south of Europe can be written with words common to them all, derived from the Latin, without the assistance of any of the foreign words which they all contain. The common stock, therefore, from which they are derived, is Latin; they are sister tongues, and the manner in which they have been broken down, and made to assume their present forma, is satisfactorily explained by Adam Smith, in his beautiful Essay on Language. English can be written with great ease with words entirely Saxon, and without any French word, although French forms a sixth part of the whole body of its words; but no sentence can be constructed with words exclusively French. The parent stock of our tongue, therefore, is Saxon, and not French or Latin. By the same test, Irish and Gaelic are proved to be virtually the same language ; and the Welsh and American to be sister dialects of one tongue. But it will not prove that the Welsh and Irish are sister dialects of one tongue, although they have many words in common* In Italian there are a few well-known passages, in which the construction is equally Latin and Italian, notwithstanding the complexity of the one tongue and the simplicity of the other. In our own tongue, containing a much larger proportion of French than the southern languages do of Germanic words, passages now and then occur in our classic writers wholly Teutonic, such as the following in the well-known dialogue between Queen Katherine and her Secretary, in King Henry the Eighth :
a His overthrow heaped happiness upon him ;
For then, and not till then, he felt himself,
And found the blessedness of being little."
Applying this last proof to the Malayan languages, it will be found that a sentence of Malay can be constructed without the assistance of Javanese words, or of Javanese without the help of Malay words. Of course, either of these two languages can be written or spoken without the least difficulty, without a word of Sanscrit or Arabic, which stand to them in the same relation that French does to English, or German to the languages of the south of Europe. The Malay and Javanese then, although a large proportion of their words be in common, are distinct tongues, and not sister dialects. But when we apply the test to languages of the South-Sea Islands spoken by the brown-complexioned, lank-haired race, we find an opposite result. A sentence in the Maori or New Zealand, and the Tahitian, can be written in words common to the two, and without the help of one word of the Malayan, which they contain; just as a sentence of Welsh and Armorican, or of Irish and Gaelic, can be construed without a single word of Latin; although, of this language, all of them contain a much larger proportion than the Polynesian tongues do of Malayan words.
After as careful an examination as I have been able to make of the many languages involved in the present inquiry; and duly considering the physical and geographical character of the wide field over which they are spoken, with the social condition of its diversified inhabitants, I come to the conclusion, that theAfter as careful an examination as I have been able to make of the many languages involved in the present inquiry; and duly considering the physical and geographical character of the wide field over which they are spoken, with the social condition of its diversified inhabitants, I come to the conclusion, that the