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East Java is easily the premier coffee-producing district of the Island, and practically over one half of the total number of plantations are within its confines, but of late years very few of the estates are
devoted exclusively to the cultivation of coffee, but combine it with other crops, such as tea, rubber, pepper and cinchona, etc. The coffee plants thrive well upon levels from 1500 to 3000 feet on undulating country. Different methods prevail of clearing the jungle, some planters entirely clearing the ground with the exception of big wind-breaks; others only clear the shrubs and undergrowth, leaving the tall trees for shade. The ground is broken up by the "patjol" (a kind of hoe), and sometimes by the plough ; where necessary, terraces are made on sloping ground.