Department of Railways,
Text on page 369
a General Remarks 371
nut are cultivated on a small scale. Coconut is cultivated on a fairly large scale in Borneo and Celebes.
Sugar is the most important product of the Dutch East Indies, especially of Java. In 1913 the total acreage of sugar in Java amounted to 360,000 acres. s.
Sugar-cane can be successfully cultivated only in regions where there is a sharp distinction between the dry and rainy seasons, and therefore the eastern part of Java is best adapted to the cultivation of sugar. In 1913 the number of sugar-factories in Java was 192, and all of them are situated E. of Cheribon. In 1914 the total amount of the product readied 22,655,274 piculs. At first it was cultivated by the government, but now the industry is entirely in private hands.
Coffee-growing is the only industry in which the old system of compulsory farming is still kept up by the government. At present the government coffee-industry is run side by side with private undertakings. The former is now controlled by the agricultural department. Some natives are required to bring the product to the government factory at a certain fixed price. Coffee is the export product next most important to sugar. The total acreage of coffee plantations in Java is 165,000 acres, of which fifty-two per cent is planted with the African species, called Coffea robusta, and thirteen per cent with another African species, Coffea liberia, and the rest with Japanese and other varieties. The total number of trees in Java is 6,130,000. Besides these, there are about 54,000 acres on which coffee is grown as a side-industry, the plants being grown between the main trees of the plantation. The number of trees thus raised is 4,150,000. In the Outer Possessions the total acreage of coffee alone is 44,000 acres (610,000 trees), and the acreage in which it is raised as a side-industry is 2,860 acres (180,000 trees).