Department of Railways,
Text on page 284
An export duty of 12 to 13 per cent is levied on the exportation of tin-ore and tin. In 1913 the total value of duty thus levied in the Federated Malay States amounted to #10,671,378. The export duty on gold is 25 per cent, that on Wolfram #33.60 per ton. On all other mineral products an export duty of ten per cent or more is levied. These rates vary somewhat according to the fluctuation in price. The money thus raised constitutes one of the chief sources of revenue for the government, which has done all in its power for the improvement of productive facilities. For instance, the rental of mines is made very low, and all machinery required for mining purposes can be imported free of duty. The government also furnishes fuel, wood, and other materials very reasonably. Viewed from the standpoint of the producer, the government is undoubtedly a benefactor. The transportation facilities, provided by the government enterprise of building railways and other roads, have immensely reduced the time and labour of production.
X. Agriculture. Coconut, coffee, sugar, tapioca, indigo, and sago are counted among the main agricultural products of the Peninsula, but by far the most important one is rubber.
Tapping Rubber Trbes.
As the most profitable variety of coffee, Robusta is widely planted, and other agricultural products are doing fairly well. But none of these compares with rubber in its far-reaching industrial significance. The demand for rubber has immensely increased of late, owing to the development of the automobile and various electrical industries. Formerly, rubber was obtained from the wild rubber plants of South America and Africa, but since the beginning of rubber-planting in the Malay Peninsula, the attention of the world has been turned to it as the chief source of good rubber. Old fields have been ploughed up and planted with rubber, and to-day the